Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Jul 15;55(7). pii: E374. doi: 10.3390/medicina55070374.
Ductus Venosus Agenesis as a Marker of Pallister-Killian Syndrome.
The ductus venosus (DV) is a shunt that allows the direct flow of well-oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein (UV) to the coronary and cerebral circulation through the foramen ovale. Its agenesis has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities and rare genetic syndromes, structural defects, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and even antepartum fetal demise. Pallister-Killian Syndrome (PKS) is a rare sporadic disorder with specific tissue mosaic distribution of an extra 12p isochromosome (i(12p)). Its main clinical features are moderate to severe intellectual disability/neuromotor delay, skin pigmentation abnormalities, typical facial appearance, variable association with multiple congenital malformations and epilepsy. Though prenatal findings (including congenital diaphragmatic hernia, ventriculomegaly, congenital heart disease, polyhydramnios, and rhizomelic shortening) have been described in literature, prenatal diagnosis is difficult as there are no associated identification signs no distinctive or pathognomonic signs, and some of these malformations are hard to identify prenatally. The tissue mosaicism linked to this syndrome and the decrease of the abnormal clone carrier of the i(p12) after successive trypsinizations of cultured cells makes the diagnosis even more challenging. We present the case of a 27.5 weeks pregnant woman with a fetal ductus venosus agenesis (DVA) as the main guide marker. To our knowledge this is the first case published in literature reporting a DVA as a guide sign to diagnose a complex condition as Pallister-Killian syndrome. We also underscore the key role of new genetic techniques as microarrays to avoid misdiagnosis when only a subtle sonographic sign is present in complex conditions like this.
Pallister–Killian syndrome; array-CGH; ductus venosus agenesis; microarrray; prenatal diagnosisPMID: 31311125 DOI: 10.3390/medicina55070374Free full text