Evaluation and Monitoring of Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
This review aims to describe the assessment of pulmonary hypertension and ventricular function in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the long-term follow-up of their pulmonary vascular disease.
In 2015, the pediatric pulmonary hypertension guidelines from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society suggested class I level of evidence B guidelines for routine evaluation of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, including longitudinal care in an interdisciplinary pulmonary hypertension program and following the recommendations offered for all children with pulmonary hypertension. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia causes compression of the lungs during critical stages of fetal development and results in lung hypoplasia. As a result, there is abnormal development of pulmonary vasculature that leads to post-natal pulmonary hypertension and increased afterload to the right ventricle. Left ventricular filling is affected by decreased pre-load and mechanical compression by abdominal content leading to decreased systemic perfusion. Persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgical repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is associated with increased mortality. Assessment and monitoring of pulmonary hypertension and ventricular function in this population of neonates is crucial to determine response to medical treatment, the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the timing of surgical repair.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Echocardiography; Long-term follow-up; Pulmonary hypertension