Background: Pulmonary hypertension with left ventricular dysfunction commonly occurs in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor with lusitropic and vasodilator effects, is used in up to 30% of CDH infants across the United States. No randomized trials have tested the efficacy or safety of milrinone in CDH neonates.
Study Design: We performed a paired retrospective analysis of CDH infants to assess the efficacy of milrinone treatment (N = 24 pairs). Efficacy was assessed by change in oxygenation index (OI) and calculated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). We evaluated safety on the basis of risks factors such as nonoperative bleeding, dysrhythmia, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia.
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