J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Jun 7. pii: S0022-3468(19)30389-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.05.021. [Epub ahead of print]
Neurodevelopmental impairment in children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Not an uncommon complication for survivors.
To evaluate neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
Using a defined search strategy, a systematic review was conducted to define the incidence and types of NDI, to report abnormal neuroimaging findings and to evaluate possible NDI predictors. Ameta-analysis was performed on comparative studies reporting risk factors for NDI, using RevMan 5.3.
Of 3541 CDH children (33 studies), 829 (23%) had NDI, with a higher incidence in CDH survivors who received ECMO treatment (49%) vs. those who had no ECMO (22%; p<0.00001). NDI included neuromuscular hypotonia (42%), hearing (13%) and visual (8%) impairment, neurobehavioral issues (20%), and learning difficulties (31%). Of 288 survivors that had postnatal neuroimaging, 49% had abnormal findings. The main risk factors for NDI were severe pulmonary hypoplasia, large defect size, ECMO use.
NDI is a relevant problem for CDH survivors, affecting 1 in 4. The spectrum of NDI covers all developmental domains and ranges from motor and sensory (hearing, visual) deficits to cognitive, language, and behavioral impairment. Further studies should be designed to better understand the pathophysiology of NDI in CDH children and to longitudinally monitor infants born with CDH to correct risk factors that can be modifiable.
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Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autism; Brain; Disability; Lung; Meta-analysis; NeonatePMID: 31227219 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.05.021