Research: Anesthetic management of thoracoscopic procedures in neonates: a retrospective analysis of 45 cases

Transl Pediatr

. 2021 Aug;10(8):2035-2043. doi: 10.21037/tp-21-265.

Anesthetic management of thoracoscopic procedures in neonates: a retrospective analysis of 45 cases

Hua Liu 1Chengjin Le 1Jing Chen 1Heng Xu 1Hui Yu 1Lin Chen 1Henry Liu 2Affiliations expand

Free PMC article


Background: Advances in medical techniques and equipment have enabled the thoracoscopic repair of certain congenital abnormalities in neonates including congenital esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the anesthetic management of neonates (7 days or younger) undergoing thoracoscopic surgery in our hospital department, and to determine the efficacy of anesthetic management in neonates.

Methods: Clinical data from 45 neonates who underwent thoracoscopic surgery in our hospital from December 2015 to March 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 25 patients underwent repair of CDH and 20 underwent repair of an EA/TEF.

Results: All patients received general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, standard ASA monitoring, and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. All patients survived the surgery. A total of 14 patients experienced decreases in SpO2, pH, PaO2, and increases in PETCO2 and PaCO2 30 minutes after CO2 insufflation. Our anesthetic management protocols are outline and analyzed.

Conclusions: Thorough preoperative preparation is critical for a desirable outcome in neonates undergoing a thoracoscopic repair of CDH or EA/TEF. In our cohort, intraoperative ventilation strategies included pressure control ventilation with peak airway pressure maintained at 15-25 cmH2O, a respiratory rate of 35-55 breaths/minute, a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 60-80%, an inspiratory/expiratory ratio (I:E) of 1:1-1.5, and careful airway suctioning to clear secretions. Postoperatively, maintaining normovolemia and hemodynamic stability are critical for successful weaning of ventilatory support and extubation.

Keywords: Thoracoscopy; congenital esophageal atresia (EA); congenital tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF); diaphragmatic hernia; neonate.

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