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Research: CD34 immunostain increases sensitivity of the diagnosis of fetal vascular malperfusion in placentas from ex-utero intrapartum treatment

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Research: CD34 immunostain increases sensitivity of the diagnosis of fetal vascular malperfusion in placentas from ex-utero intrapartum treatment

J Perinat Med

. 2020 Sep 8;/j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2020-0156/jpm-2020-0156.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2020-0156. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32903209/

CD34 immunostain increases sensitivity of the diagnosis of fetal vascular malperfusion in placentas from ex-utero intrapartum treatment

Jerzy Stanek 1Affiliations expand

Abstract

Short Communications EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) procedure is a fetal survival-increasing modification of cesarean section. Previously we found an increase incidence of fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) in placentas from EXIT procedures which indicates the underlying stasis of fetal blood flow in such cases. This retrospective analysis analyzes the impact of the recently introduced CD34 immunostain for the FVM diagnosis in placentas from EXIT procedures. Objectives and Methods A total of 105 placentas from EXIT procedures (48 to airway, 43 to ECMO and 14 to resection) were studied. In 73 older cases, the placental histological diagnosis of segmental FVM was made on H&E stained placental sections only (segmental villous avascularity) (Group 1), while in 32 most recent cases, the CD34 component of a double E-cadherin/CD34 immunostain slides was also routinely used to detect the early FVM (endothelial fragmentation, villous hypovascularity) (Group 2). 23 clinical and 47 independent placental phenotypes were compared by χ2 or ANOVA, where appropriate. Results There was no statistical significance between the groups in rates of segmental villous avascularity (29 vs. 34%), but performing CD34 immunostain resulted in adding and/or upgrading 12 more cases of segmental FVM in Group 2, thus increasing the sensitivity of placental examination for FVM by 37%. There were no other statistically significantly differences in clinical (except for congenital diaphragmatic hernias statistically significantly more common in Group 2, 34 vs 56%, p=0.03) and placental phenotypes, proving the otherwise comparability of the groups. Conclusions The use of CD34 immunostain increases the sensitivity of placental examination for FVM by 1/3, which may improve the neonatal management by revealing the increased likelihood of the potentially life-threatening neonatal complications.

Keywords: CD34 immunohistochemistry; EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) procedure; fetal vascular malperfusion; placenta.

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