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Research: Changing populations being treated with ECMO in the neonatal period – who are the others?

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Research: Changing populations being treated with ECMO in the neonatal period – who are the others?

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med

. 2022 Nov 17;101402.

 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2022.101402. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36414493/

Changing populations being treated with ECMO in the neonatal period – who are the others?

Allison T Rose 1Sarah Keene 2

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Extracorporeal life support via extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has served the sickest of neonates for almost 50 years. Naturally, the characteristics of neonates receiving ECMO have changed. Advances in care have averted the need for ECMO for some, while complex cases with uncertain outcomes, previously not eligible for ECMO, are now considered. Characterizing the disease states and outcomes for neonates on ECMO is challenging as many infants do not fall into classic categories, i.e. meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Since 2017, over one third of neonatal respiratory ECMO runs reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry are grouped as Other, a catch-all that encompasses those with a diagnosis not included in the classic categories. This review summarizes the historical neonatal ECMO population, reviews advances in therapy and technology impacting neonatal care, and addresses the unknowns in the ever-growing category of Other.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Epidemiology; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Neonate; Respiratory.

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