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Research: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia subtypes: Comparing birth prevalence, occurrence by maternal age, and mortality in a national birth cohort

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Research: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia subtypes: Comparing birth prevalence, occurrence by maternal age, and mortality in a national birth cohort

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol

. 2022 Nov 28.

 doi: 10.1111/ppe.12939. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36441118/

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia subtypes: Comparing birth prevalence, occurrence by maternal age, and mortality in a national birth cohort

Maria Peppa 1Bianca L De Stavola 1Stavros Loukogeorgakis 2 3Ania Zylbersztejn 1Ruth Gilbert 1Paolo De Coppi 2 3

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Background: Population-based administrative data have rarely been used to compare the birth prevalence, risk factors for occurrence, and mortality of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) subtypes.

Objectives: We used a national birth cohort to identify CDH subtypes and compared their birth prevalence, relationship with maternal age after accounting for sociodemographic factors, and 1-year mortality rates.

Methods: Linked hospital admission and death records were used to identify isolated and complex CDH cases (involving additional anomalies) among singleton livebirths in England between 2002 and 2018. The prevalence of each CDH subtype per 10,000 livebirths was estimated overall and by infant, birth and maternal characteristics. The relationship between maternal age and each subtype relative to no CDH was examined using multivariable log-binomial regression to estimate risk ratios (RRs). One-year mortality rates were examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and the hazard ratio (HR) of complex versus isolated CDH was calculated using Cox regression.

Results: Among 9.5 million livebirths, we identified 1285 with isolated CDH and 1150 with complex CDH. The overall prevalence of isolated and complex CDH was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 1.4) and 1.2 (95% CI 1.1, 1.3) per 10,000 livebirths, respectively. Only complex CDH was associated with maternal age. Compared with maternal age 25-34 years, complex CDH risk was elevated for maternal age < 20 years (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00, 1.72). Risk was highest for maternal age ≥ 40 years (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.21, 2.15) although accounting for chromosomal anomalies attenuated the risk (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.00, 1.92). The 1-year mortality rate for complex CDH (33.1%, 95% CI 30.5, 35.9) was slightly higher than for isolated CDH (29.7%, 95% CI 27.3, 32.3) (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.96, 1.27).

Conclusions: Mechanisms of occurrence differed between and within CDH subtypes and 1-year mortality of complex CDH was slightly higher than for isolated CDH.

Keywords: congenital abnormalities; epidemiology; mortality; routinely collected health data.

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