Research: Does creating a dome reduce recurrence in congenital diaphragmatic hernia following patch repair?

J Pediatr Surg

. 2021 Oct 22;S0022-3468(21)00725-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.014. Online ahead of print.

Does creating a dome reduce recurrence in congenital diaphragmatic hernia following patch repair?

Mariatu A Verla 1Candace C Style 2Timothy C Lee 1Alicia D Menchaca 3Patricio E Lau 4Amy R Mehollin-Ray 5Caraciolo J Fernandes 6Sundeep G Keswani 1Oluyinka O Olutoye 3Affiliations expand


Purpose: To develop a quantifiable approach to identify a dome shape of the repaired diaphragm using post-operative chest radiograph and to determine if a dome-shaped prosthetic patch repair is associated with a decreased rate of CDH recurrence.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all neonates evaluated at our institution from January 2004 to August 2017 with left- and right-sided CDH with at least 6 months of follow-up after CDH repair. Patch use, post-operative imaging and postnatal outcomes were analyzed. Neonates with patch repair were divided into two groups based on the presence of a dome. Using postoperative chest radiographs, the presence of a dome was classified as having a vertical-horizontal diaphragm ratio (VHDR) greater than 20%. Primary outcome was CDH recurrence after repair.

Results: We identified 192 neonates who met our inclusion criteria. Cohort survival was 96%, recurrence rate was 15%, 78% had a left-sided CDH; 54% received a patch repair, of which 58% had a type C defect. Of the 104 infants with patch repairs, the CDH recurrence rate was 22% (n = 23) at a median age of 8.5 months (3.8, 20.1). Although neonates with a dome repair had more ECMO use and longer hospital stay, their recurrence rate was about half of those with a non-dome repair (14% vs 28%, p = 0.07).

Conclusions: A dome-shaped repair may reduce recurrence following prosthetic patch repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A larger, multi-institutional study is needed to statistically validate this clinically significant observation.

Type of study: Retrospective review.

Level of evidence: III.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Dome shape; Prosthetic patch repair; Recurrence.

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