Educational level and socioeconomic status in patients born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A population-based study.
Neurodevelopmental dysfunction is one of the most disabling outcomes for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors and may have a long lasting impact in adult life.
To evaluate to which extent being born with CDH has an impact on the educational level and socioeconomic status as a proxy for neurocognitive development.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Nationwide, population-based prospective study of newborn children in Sweden from 1982 to 2015. School grades, highest educational level and income were assessed through Swedish public registries. Children above 15 years of age with CDH were compared with randomly selected controls.
A significantly higher number of cases (17% vs 10%) did achieve neither a school nor a university degree. Among those who achieved a degree there was no difference in the highest level of education. The qualification points in elementary school did not differ, but in high school female cases had significantly lower qualification points than female controls. There were no differences in individual disposable income between cases and controls. However, males had higher income compared to females. Prematurity and a long hospital stay had a negative impact on educational level.
A higher proportion of children born with CDH compared to controls do not achieve a school degree. Among those who achieved a degree, the school achievements and educational level were similar to controls. Prematurity and a long hospital stay are risk factors for not achieving an educational degree.
TYPE OF STUDY:
Prognosis study (high-quality prospective cohort study with 99% of patients followed to the study end point).
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:
Level I. I for a prognosis study – This is a high-quality, prospective cohort study with 99% of patients followed to the study end point.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Educational level; Income; Neurodevelopment; Socioeconomic statusPMID: 31982090 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.12.018