Research: Emanuel syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A systematic review

J Pediatr Surg

. 2021 Nov 20;S0022-3468(21)00777-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.11.005. Online ahead of print.

Emanuel syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A systematic review

Lauren E Adams 1Alison Chapman 2Carrie L Cormack 3Kirstin Campbell 4Ashley H Ebanks 5David J Annibale 2Laura E Hollinger 6Affiliations expand


Background: Emanuel Syndrome (ES), a rare chromosomal disorder caused by a supernumerary chromosome 22 derivative (der(22)t(11;22)), was identified in a fetus with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) at our fetal center. We aimed to identify a precedent for clinical care and patient outcomes to guide family decision-making.

Methods: This non-funded and non-registered study queried the entire CDH Registry (CDHR) including >10,000 patients since 1995 and conducted a systematic literature review for patients with concomitant ES and CDH.

Results: Literature review captured 12 citations and identified 9 patients with CDH+ES from over 400 known ES cases. Given the rarity of the disease and to reduce bias, there were no exclusion criteria aside from non-English language. Of these 9, two underwent surgical CDH repair with neither surviving. The CDHR identified 6 patients with ES, all reported after 2013 and prenatally diagnosed. Median estimated gestational age was 39 weeks (range 37-40) and median birth weight was 2.72 kg (range 2.4-3.4 kg). 3 patients died within the first few postnatal days; surgical repair was not offered due to “anomalies” and “pulmonary hypertension” in two and one family chose comfort measures. The other 3 patients underwent surgical repair, and 2 were supported with ECMO. Two patients survived to discharge, incurring surgical comorbidities associated with severe CDH including gastrostomy dependence, tracheostomy, and CDH recurrence.

Conclusions: ES patients with CDH have potential to tolerate repair and survive to discharge, however with significant additional morbidity combined with severe challenges inherent to ES. This represents the largest series of patients with CDH and ES to date.

Level of evidence: IV (Case series with no comparison group).

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Emanuel syndrome; Extracorporeal life support.

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