Fetal echocardiography (ECHO) in assessment of structural heart defects in congenital diaphragmatic hernia patients: Is early postnatal ECHO necessary for ECMO candidacy?
The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of fetal echocardiogram (ECHO) for detecting cardiac structural anomalies that may impact Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) candidacy in infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH).
A retrospective review was performed on fetuses with CDH (January 2007-June 2017). Inclusion criteria were inborn and at least one prenatal and postnatal ECHO. ECHOs were evaluated for structural heart defects. Primary outcomes were accuracy of prenatal fetal ECHO and identify differences between prenatal and postnatal ECHO. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis were performed.
131 inborn patients were identified. Mean gestational age of fetal ECHO was 26.6 ± 5.5 weeks. The median time to postnatal ECHO was DOL 1 [0-30]. Fetal ECHO had 92% accuracy, 83% sensitivity, 93% specificity, PPV of 95%, NPV of 92%, and a 90% accuracy for visualization of at least one pulmonary vein into the left atrium on the contralateral (non-CDH) side. Thirty-five percent of patients received ECMO, and 26% had an associated cardiac anomaly. All ECMO patients had an accurate structural fetal ECHO.
Fetal ECHO is sufficient for identifying major structural heart defects at large volume centers with trained pediatric cardiologists and may be used to guide clinical management, particularly in regards to ECMO candidacy.
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Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); Congenital heart disease; Echocardiogram (ECHO); Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO); Fetal