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Research: Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a narrative review of the history, current practice, and future directions

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Research: Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a narrative review of the history, current practice, and future directions

Transl Pediatr

. 2021 May;10(5):1448-1460. doi: 10.21037/tp-20-130. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34189104/

Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a narrative review of the history, current practice, and future directions

Erin E Perrone 1Jan A Deprest 2 3Affiliations expand

Free PMC article

Abstract

Fetal intervention for fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been investigated for over 30 years and is summarized in this manuscript. The review begins with a discussion of the history of fetal intervention for this severe congenital anomaly beginning with open fetal surgery with repair of the anatomical defect, shifting towards tracheal occlusion via open surgery techniques, and finally fetoscopic endoluminal balloon tracheal occlusion using a percutaneous approach. The current technique of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) is described in detail with steps of the procedure and complementary figures. The main outcomes of single-institutional studies and multiple systematic reviews are examined and discussed. Despite these studies, the fetal community agrees that FETO remains investigational at this time as there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as the standard of care for CDH. A randomized controlled trial, The Tracheal Occlusion to Accelerate Lung Growth (TOTAL) trial, has been designed to attempt to answer this question in an elaborate, international, multi-institutional study and is described in the text. Finally, future directions of fetal intervention for antenatally diagnosed CDH are discussed, including options for non-isolated CDH, the Smart-TO balloon for nonoperative reversal of occlusion, and transplacental sildenafil for treatment of pulmonary hypertension prior to birth.

Keywords: Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO); congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); fetal intervention.

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