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Research: Genetically Modified Mouse Models of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Opportunities and Limitations for Studying Altered Lung Development

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Research: Genetically Modified Mouse Models of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Opportunities and Limitations for Studying Altered Lung Development

Front Pediatr

. 2022 May 13;10:867307.

 doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.867307. eCollection 2022. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35633948/

Genetically Modified Mouse Models of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Opportunities and Limitations for Studying Altered Lung Development

Florian Friedmacher 1Udo Rolle 1Prem Puri 2 3

Affiliations expand

Free PMC article

Abstract

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a relatively common and life-threatening birth defect, characterized by an abnormal opening in the primordial diaphragm that interferes with normal lung development. As a result, CDH is accompanied by immature and hypoplastic lungs, being the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with this condition. In recent decades, various animal models have contributed novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying CDH and associated pulmonary hypoplasia. In particular, the generation of genetically modified mouse models, which show both diaphragm and lung abnormalities, has resulted in the discovery of multiple genes and signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CDH. This article aims to offer an up-to-date overview on CDH-implicated transcription factors, molecules regulating cell migration and signal transduction as well as components contributing to the formation of extracellular matrix, whilst also discussing the significance of these genetic models for studying altered lung development with regard to the human situation.

Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia; diaphragm development; genetic model; lung development; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary hypoplasia; retinoic acid; transgenic mice.

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