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Research: Hidden cardiovascular morbidity in children and young adults born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A population-based study

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Research: Hidden cardiovascular morbidity in children and young adults born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A population-based study

J Pediatr Surg

. 2022 Apr 7;S0022-3468(22)00257-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.03.028. Online ahead of print https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35501166/

Hidden cardiovascular morbidity in children and young adults born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A population-based study

Katarina Övermo Tydén 1Felicia Nordenstam 2Björn Frenckner 3Carmen Mesas Burgos 3Affiliations expand

Abstract

Introduction: Congenital diaphragmatic (CDH) hernia is a rare congenital malformation with considerable mortality and morbidity in the neonatal period. The majority of the children today survive but little is known about long term cardiovascular morbidity.

Material and methods: This was a nationwide population-based prospective case-control study within a cohort of Swedish children with CDH, born 1982-2015. Five controls for each patient were randomly sampled from the population. The outcomes were the corresponding International Statistical Classification of Disease (ICD) codes for cardiovascular diagnoses according to ICD 9 and 10.

Results: There was an overrepresentation of cardiovascular diagnoses in the CDH group after one year of age compared to the control group, 8.0vs 0.5% (n = 53 versus n = 16). The risk of having a cardiovascular diagnosis in this CDH group was 15 times higher compared to the control group (HR 15.8, 95% CI: 9-27.6, p < 0.005). The diagnoses of cardiac arrhythmias and systemic hypertension were less common in the CDH group before the age of one year compared to the CDH group beyond the age of one year. Arrhythmia 3.7 vs 15.1%, systemic hypertension 3.7 vs 7.5%.

Conclusion: CDH survivors have increased cardiovascular morbidity during childhood and young adulthood. This implies that structured follow up programs, covering cardiovascular morbidity, needs to be developed and should be offered in pediatric and adult care. Being born with CDH seems to be a risk factor for future cardiovascular diagnoses.

Level of evidence: Level 3: Case-Control Study.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diagnoses; Cardiovascular morbidity; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia(CDH); Pulmonary hypertension.

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