Research: Inhaled nitric oxide use in newborns

Paediatr Child Health

. 2023 May 4;28(2):119-127.

 doi: 10.1093/pch/pxac107. eCollection 2023 May.

Inhaled nitric oxide use in newborns

[Article in English, English]

Souvik Mitra 1Gabriel Altit 1

Affiliations expand


Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), a selective pulmonary vasodilator, is used as a therapeutic modality in infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). iNO should ideally be initiated following echocardiographic confirmation of PPHN. Use of iNO is recommended in late preterm and term infants who develop HRF despite optimal oxygenation and ventilation strategies. However, routine iNO use in preterm infants on respiratory support is not recommended. iNO may be considered as a rescue modality in preterm infants with early-onset HRF when associated with prolonged rupture of membranes or oligohydramnios, or late-onset HRF in the context of bronchopulmonary dysplasia-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) with severe right ventricular failure. A trial of iNO may also be considered for infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia with persistent HRF despite optimal lung recruitment, and with echocardiographic evidence of supra-systemic PH and adequate left ventricular function.

Keywords: Hypoxemic respiratory failure; Inhaled nitric oxide; Newborn; Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

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