. 2023 Mar 29.
doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001901. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37040072/
Inhaled Nitric Oxide Utilization in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Treated With Extracorporeal Life Support: A Propensity Score Analysis
Sharada H Gowda 1, Ahmed Almaazmi 1, Joseph Hagan 1, Emily Niemyjski 1, Adam M Vogel 1, Tim Jancelewicz 2, Matteo Di Nardo 3, Matthew T Harting 4, Caraciolo J Fernandes 1, Danh V Nguyen 5, Yigit S Guner 6 7
- PMID: 37040072
- DOI: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001901
Although used commonly, ability of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) to improve outcomes in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) who receive extracorporeal life support (ECLS) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between pre-ECLS use of iNO and mortality in infants with CDH from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry. Neonates who underwent ECLS for CDH were identified from the ELSO Registry from 2009 to 2019. Patients were categorized into those treated with iNO versus not prior to initiating ECLS. Patients were then matched 1:1 for case-mix based on pre-ECLS covariates using the propensity score (PS) for iNO treatment. The matched groups were compared for mortality. The matched cohorts were also compared for ELSO-defined systems-based complications as secondary outcomes. There were a total of 3,041 infants with an overall mortality of 52.2% and a pre-ECLS iNO use rate of 84.8%. With 1:1 matching, there were 461 infants with iNO use and 461 without iNO use. Following matching, use of iNO was not associated with a difference in mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.805; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.621-1.042; p = 0.114). Results were similar in unadjusted analyses, and after controlling for covariates in the full cohort of patients and in the 1:1 matched data. Patients receiving iNO had significantly higher odds of renal complications (OR = 1.516; 95% CI, 1.141-2.014; p = 0.004), but no other significant differences were observed among secondary outcomes. ECLS use of iNO in CDH patients was not associated with a difference in mortality. Future randomized controlled studies are needed to delineate the utility of iNO in CDH patients.
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