Research: Inotropic score and vasoactive inotropic score as predictors of outcomes in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center retrospective study

Front Pediatr

. 2023 Feb 1;11:1101546.

 doi: 10.3389/fped.2023.1101546. eCollection 2023.

Inotropic score and vasoactive inotropic score as predictors of outcomes in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center retrospective study

Srirupa Hari Gopal 1Cynthia L Toy 2Morcos Hanna 1Betul Yilmaz Furtun 3Joseph L Hagan 1Ahmed A Nassr 4Caraciolo J Fernandes 1Sundeep Keswani 5Sharada H Gowda 1

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Background: Neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have varying degrees of pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and cardiac dysfunction. These neonates frequently require vasoactive support and are at high risk for mortality and morbidity, including prolonged ventilator support, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), prolonged length of stay, and need for tracheostomy. However, identifying which infants are at increased risk can be challenging. In this study, we sought to investigate the utility of the inotropic score (IS) and vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) as tools to predict significant clinical outcomes and overall survival in patients with CDH. Additionally, we evaluated the correlation between IS/VIS and postnatal echocardiographic variables.

Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 57 patients with CDH whose postnatal care was based on a standardized institutional protocol. We calculated the IS/VIS at 6-, 12-, 24-, 48 hours of life (HOL), on the day of CDH repair and 24- and 48 hours after surgical repair. The association of these scores with postnatal echocardiographic markers was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and linear regression, while logistic regression was used for binary outcomes, and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations with survival.

Results: We found that every one-unit increase in IS/VIS at 6 HOL was associated with 13% increase in the odds of ECMO (p = 0.034) and 10.1% increase in risk of death (p = 0.021). An increase in IS/VIS at 12-, 24- and 48-HOL was associated with posterior septal bowing in the first postnatal echocardiogram (p < 0.05 for all). Additionally, we noted an inverse relationship between IS (r = -0.281, p = 0.036) and VIS (r = -0.288, p = 0.031) on the day of repair and left ventricle (LV) systolic function in first postnatal echocardiogram. Increase in IS (r = -0.307, p = 0.024) and VIS (r = -0.285, p = 0.037) on the day of repair was associated with decreased LV function on the post-repair echocardiogram.

Conclusion: This retrospective study showed a significant association between IS/VIS obtained at various time points with clinical outcomes and echocardiographic findings in CDH, which could be used to guide prognosis and management in this patient population.

Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; inotropic score; pulmonary hypertension; vasoactive inotropic score; ventricular dysfunction.

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