Research: Late congenital diaphragmatic hernia: is a significant challenge? A case series and review from literature

Minerva Pediatr (Torino)

. 2021 Jun 21. doi: 10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06329-1. Online ahead of print.

Late congenital diaphragmatic hernia: is a significant challenge? A case series and review from literature

Umberto Raucci 1Alessandra Boni 2Silvia Foligno 3Laura Valfrè 4Piero Bagolan 4Paolo S Schingo 5Nicoletta Della Vecchia 6Antonino Reale 6Alberto Villani 6Annamaria Musolino 6Affiliations expand


Background: Late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia (L-CDH) diagnosis is a challenge for its clinical various presentation. In literature radiologic misdiagnosis is up to 62%. The aim of this study is analyze clinical findings about our cases series in a particular setting of Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) and review of literature.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of children older than 1 month, operated for L-CDH from November 2009 to December 2019 presented to PED, with a total of 20 children (5 Morgagni and 15 Bochdaleck).

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 1,48 years. 50% patients had a history of previouses symtptoms with a mean duration of 243,75 days. In 30 % of cases associated anomalies were presented, mainly cardiovascular. 25% of patients had undergone to chest X-ray in past history with misdiagnosis of pneumonia, microganulia and broncovascular thickening. Misdiagnosis are manly among left sided Bochdaleck hernia. Respiratory distress alone or associated with vomiting is commonest acute symptom refered to PED. Respiratory symptoms were more common in younger children, while gastrointestinal ones in older children (not statistically differences p=0,8769). Post-operative recurrence were frequent only in cases of right sided CDH and comparing with left ones, there is a difference statistically significant (p=0.0476).

Conclusions: L-CDH should be suspected in cases of unexplained acute respiratory distress and vomiting, particulary when children are affected to associate cardiovascular malformation. In cases of patients with long previouses symptoms and various accesses to PED is important to emphasize history of respiratory distress, dysphagia and failure to thrive and should be considered a chest X-ray.

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