. 2023 Feb 27;13(5):898.
doi: 10.3390/diagnostics13050898. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36900042/
Lung Ultrasound Score in Neonates with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH-LUS): A Cross-Sectional Study
Chiara Maddaloni 1, Domenico Umberto De Rose 1, Sara Ronci 1, Iliana Bersani 1, Ludovica Martini 1, Stefano Caoci 1, Irma Capolupo 1, Andrea Conforti 2, Pietro Bagolan 2 3, Andrea Dotta 1, Flaminia Calzolari 1
- PMID: 36900042
- PMCID: PMC10000983
- DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics13050898
Free PMC article
Introduction: The use of a lung ultrasound (LUS) score has been described in the early phases of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome; however, there is still no data regarding the application of the LUS score to neonates with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The objective of this observational cross-sectional study was to explore, for the first time, the postnatal changes in LUS score patterns in neonates with CDH, with the creation of a new specific CDH-LUS score. Methods: We included all consecutive neonates with a prenatal diagnosis of CDH admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) from June 2022 to December 2022 who underwent lung ultrasonography. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) was determined at scheduled time points: (T0) during the first 24 h of life; (T1) at 24-48 h of life; (T2) within 12 h of surgical repair; (T3) a week after the surgical repair. We used a modified LUS score (CDH-LUS), starting from the original 0-3 score. We assigned 4 as a score in the presence of herniated viscera in the hemithorax (liver, small bowel, stomach, or heart in the case of a mediastinal shift) in the preoperative scans or pleural effusions in the postoperative scans. Results: We included in this observational cross-sectional study 13 infants: twelve/13 had a left-sided hernia (2 severe, 3 moderate, and 7 mild cases), while one patient had a right-sided severe hernia. The median CDH-LUS score was 22 (IQR 16-28) during the first 24 h of life (T0), 21 (IQR 15-22) at 24-48 h of life (T1), 14 (IQR 12-18) within 12 h of surgical repair (T2) and 4 (IQR 2-15) a week after the surgical repair (T3). The CDH-LUS significantly dropped over time from the first 24 h of life (T0) to a week after the surgical repair (T3), according to ANOVA for repeated measures. Conclusion: We showed a significant improvement in CDH-LUS scores from the immediate postoperative period, with normal ultrasonographic evaluations a week after surgery in most patients.
Keywords: LUS; congenital malformation; newborns; ultrasonography.