Birth Defects Res
. 2022 Jun 27.
doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2059. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35757961/
Maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Julia Finn 1, Jonathan Suhl 2, Vijaya Kancherla 1, Kristin M Conway 2, Jacob Oleson 3, Alpa Sidhu 4, Eirini Nestoridi 5, Sarah C Fisher 6, Sonja A Rasmussen 7, Wei Yang 8, Paul A Romitti 2 3, National Birth Defects Prevention Study
- PMID: 35757961
- DOI: 10.1002/bdr2.2059
Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) occurs when abnormal diaphragm development allows herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. Its etiopathogenesis is not well understood, but cigarette smoking and alcohol exposure may impact diaphragm development. Using data from a large, population-based case-control study, we examined associations between maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and CDH in offspring.
Methods: We analyzed maternal interview reports of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy for 831 children with CDH and 11,416 children without birth defects with estimated dates of delivery during 1997-2011. Generalized linear mixed effects models with a random intercept for study site were used to estimate associations between measures of exposure to smoking (any, type, frequency, duration) and alcohol (any, quantity, frequency, variability, type) for all CDH combined and selected subtypes (Bochdalek and Morgagni).
Results: Mothers of 280 (34.0%) case and 3,451 (30.3%) control children reported early pregnancy exposure to cigarette smoking. Adjusted odds ratios for all CDH were increased for any (1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.5), active (1.3, 1.0-1.7), and passive (1.4, 1.1-1.7) smoking. Early pregnancy alcohol consumption was reported by mothers of 286 (34.9%) case and 4,200 (37.0%) control children; odds were near the null for any consumption (0.9, 0.8-1.1) and consumption with (0.9, 0.7, 1.1) or without (0.9, 0.8, 1.1) binging. Estimates for smoking and alcohol tended to be higher for Bochdalek CDH and Morgagni CDH than those for all CDH.
Conclusions: Findings suggest that maternal early pregnancy exposure to cigarette smoking, but less so to alcohol consumption, contributes to CDH. These findings need to be replicated in additional large studies that use systematic case ascertainment and classification, detailed exposure assessment, and examine subtype-specific associations.
Keywords: alcohol; case-control; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; population-based; pregnancy; smoking.
© 2022 The Authors. Birth Defects Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.