Int J Mol Sci
. 2023 Jun 13;24(12):10050.
doi: 10.3390/ijms241210050. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37373198/
MIF Increases sFLT1 Expression in Early Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Preeclampsia
Free PMC article
Insufficient immune tolerance during pregnancy is associated with pathological conditions such as preeclampsia (PE). Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1), which exerts a role in the late stage of PE, has shown its beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in inflammation-associated diseases. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was reported to upregulate sFLT1 production in experimental congenital diaphragmatic hernia. However, the placental sFLT1 expression in early uncomplicated pregnancy and whether MIF can regulate sFLT1 expression in uncomplicated and preeclamptic pregnancy are unclear. We collected first-trimester placentas and term placentas from uncomplicated and preeclamptic pregnancies to investigate sFLT1 and MIF expression in vivo. Primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) and a human trophoblast cell line (Bewo) were used to study the regulation of MIF on sFLT1 expression in vitro. In placentas from first-trimester pregnancy, we observed a high expression of sFLT1, specifically in extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) and syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells. MIF mRNA levels strongly correlated with sFLT1 expression in term placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies. In in vitro experiments, sFLT1 and MIF levels increased significantly in CTBs during their differentiation to EVTs and STBs, and MIF inhibitor (ISO-1) significantly reduced sFLT1 expression in a dose-dependent manner during this process. sFLT1 showed significant upregulation with increasing doses of MIF in Bewo cells. Our results show that sFLT1 is highly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy and that MIF can increase sFLT1 expression in early uncomplicated pregnancy and PE, which suggests that sFLT1 plays an essential role in the modulation of inflammation in pregnancy.
Keywords: inflammation; macrophage migration inhibitory factor; preeclampsia; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1.