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Research: Mortality trends in neonatal ECMO for pulmonary hypoplasia: A review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database from 1981 to 2016

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Research: Mortality trends in neonatal ECMO for pulmonary hypoplasia: A review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database from 1981 to 2016

J Pediatr Surg

. 2020 Sep 16;S0022-3468(20)30650-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.09.005. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33012559/

Mortality trends in neonatal ECMO for pulmonary hypoplasia: A review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database from 1981 to 2016

Jenifer Cuestas 1Pablo Lohmann 2Joseph L Hagan 2Adam M Vogel 3Caraciolo J Fernandes 2Joseph A Garcia-Prats 2Affiliations expand

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this review is to provide ECMO outcome data for medical personnel who counsel families of patients with pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), often secondary to renal abnormalities. We report diagnoses and outcomes associated with PH in neonates that were treated with ECMO over the past 35 years.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the ELSO database for neonates born between 1981 and 2016 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of PH. Five patient groups were created based on ICD-9 codes. Mortality rates were compared and trends over time were investigated.

Results: Thirty-three percent of the 1385 patients survived to discharge. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients had significantly higher mortality than PH patients secondary to renal dysplasia (p < 0.001). Mortality decreased significantly over time for all groups (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients alive at discharge increased over time for CDH patients (p < 0.001), whereas survival decreased for patients with PH secondary to renal dysplasia (p = 0.012).

Conclusions: Neonates with PH that require ECMO have high mortality rates, which have generally decreased over the past 35 years; however, mortality for neonates with PH secondary to renal dysplasia continues to increase. We speculate that the apparent rise in mortality for these patients is because of changes in patient selection subsequent to improvements in non-ECMO ventilatory support.

Level of evidence: II.

Keywords: ECMO; ELSO; Pulmonary hypoplasia; Renal dysplasia.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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