Research: Non-hiatal diaphragmatic hernias: results of transabdominal and transthoracic surgical approaches at a fourth-level hospital


. 2024 May 20.

 doi: 10.1007/s10029-024-03065-1. Online ahead of print.

Non-hiatal diaphragmatic hernias: results of transabdominal and transthoracic surgical approaches at a fourth-level hospital

Manuel José Torres-Jurado 1María Teresa Gómez-Hernández 2Andrés E Valera-Montiel 3Laura Vicente-González 4Omar Abdel-Lah-Fernández 3Felipe Carlos Parreño-Manchado 3Marcelo Fernando Jiménez-López 2

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Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the clinical and demographic profiles, as well as perioperative outcomes, of patients undergoing surgery for non-hiatal diaphragmatic hernias. Additionally, it aims to analyse these outcomes based on the surgical approach employed (transthoracic versus transabdominal).

Methods: This retrospective, observational study was conducted at a single center and involved patients diagnosed with non-hiatal diaphragmatic hernia who underwent either emergency or elective surgery between July 2007 and March 2023. Clinical characteristics and perioperative outcomes of these patients were compared using appropriate statistical tests.The research protocol for this observational, retrospective, and comparative study followed the Declaration of Helsinki’s ethical requirements. The need for Clinical Research Ethics Committee approval was waived according to our institutional law because the study was a retrospective cohort study based on anonymous data of patients. Informed consent was waived because this study involved the secondary analysis of patient medical records. Additionally, this study followed the STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

Results: The analysis included 22 patients being 59.1% men, with median age of 61 years. The predominant clinical presentation was restrictive lung disease (40.9%). The majority of cases (68%) had traumatic aetiology with a median defect size of 4 cm (range of 3-8 cm). Elective surgery was performed in 15 cases (68.1%) and transthoracic approach was employed in 13 patients (54.5%). Postoperative major morbidity reached 27.2% and mortality within 30 days was 9.1%. Emergency surgeries accounted for 44.4% of transabdominal interventions, compared to 23% in the transthoracic subgroup (p = 0.376). There were no statistically significant differences between the transabdominal and trasnthoracic approaches in terms of global postoperative complications (88.8% vs. 84.6%, p = 1), major complications (44.4% vs 15.4%, p = 0.734), mortality (11.1% v 7.6%, p = 1) and recurrence (11.1% vs 7.6%, p = 1). Postoperative stay was significantly shorter in the transthoracic subgroup (6 days vs. 14 days, p = 0.011).

Conclusions: Non-hiatal diaphragmatic hernias are characterized by significant postoperative major morbidity and mortality rates, standing at 27.2% and 9.1%, respectively, accompanied by a recurrence rate of 9.1%. Both transthoracic and transabdominal approaches demonstrate comparable short- and long-term outcomes.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Non-hiatal diaphragmatic hernia; Thraumatic diaphragmatic hernia; Transabdominal approach; Transthoracic approach.

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