Research: Patches in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A systematic review

Ann Surg

. 2024 Mar 7.

 doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000006256. Online ahead of print.

Patches in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A systematic review

Amulya K Saxena 1Romilly K Hayward

Affiliations expand


Objective: This systematic review aims to evaluate current choice in practice and outcomes of biomaterials used in patch repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

Background: Multiple biomaterials, both novel and combinations of pre-existing materials are employed in patch repair of large size CDH.

Methods: Literature search was performed across Embase, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science. Publications that explicitly reported patch repair, material used and recurrences following CDH repair were selected.

Results: Sixty-three papers were included, presenting data on 4598 patients of which 1811 (39.4%) were managed using 19 types of patches. Goretex® (GTX) (n=1259) was the most frequently employed patch followed by Surgisis® (n=164), Dualmesh® (n=114), Marlex®/GTX® (n=56), Tutoplast dura® (n=40), Dacron® (n=34), Dacron®/GTX® (n=32), Permacol® (n=24), Teflon® (n=24), Surgisis®/GTX® (n=15), Sauvage® Filamentous Fabric (n=13), Marlex® (n=9), Alloderm® (n=8), Silastic® (n=4), Collagen coated Vicryl® mesh (CCVM) (n=1), Mersilene® (n=1), and MatriStem® (n=1) Biomaterials were further subgrouped as: Synthetic non-resorbable (SNOR) (n=1458), Natural-resorbable (NR) (n=249), Combined natural and synthetic non-resorbable (NSNOR) (n=103), and Combined natural and synthetic resorbable (NSR) (n=1). Overall recurrence rate for patch repair was 16.8% (n=305). For patch types with n>20, recurrence rate was lowest in GTX/Marlex (3.6%), followed by Teflon (4.2%), Dacron (5.6%), GTX (13.8%), Permacol (16.0%), Tutoplast Dura (17.5%), Dualmesh (20.2%), SIS/GTX (26.7%), SIS (36.6%), and Dacron/GTX (37.5%).When analysed by biomaterial groups, recurrence was highest in NSR (100%), followed by NR (32.9%), NSNOR (17.5) and SNOR the least (14.0%).

Conclusion: In this cohort, over one-third of CDH were closed using patches. To date, 19 patch types/variations have been employed for CDH closure. GTX is the most popular, employed in 70% of patients; however excluding smaller cohorts (n<20) GTX/Marlex is associated with the lowest recurrence rate (3.6%). SNOR was the material type least associated with recurrence while NSR experienced recurrence in every instance.

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