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Research: Placental tissue stem cells and their role in neonatal diseases

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Research: Placental tissue stem cells and their role in neonatal diseases

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med

. 2021 Dec 20;101322. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2021.101322. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34953760/

Placental tissue stem cells and their role in neonatal diseases

Andreas Damianos 1Kui Xu 2Gregory T Kalin 2Vladimir V Kalinichenko 3Affiliations expand

Abstract

Neonatal diseases such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, diseases of prematurity and congenital disorders carry increased morbidity and mortality. Despite technological advancements, their incidence remains largely unabated. Stem cell (SC) interventions are novel therapies in the neonatal world. In pre-clinical models of neonatal diseases, SC applications have shown encouraging results. SC sources vary, with the bone marrow being the most utilized. However, the ability to harvest bone marrow SCs from neonates is limited. Placental-tissue derived SCs (PTSCs), provide an alternative and highly attractive source. Human placentas, the cornerstone of fetal survival, are abundant with such cells. Comparing to adult pools, PTSCs exhibit increased potency, decreased immunogenicity and stronger anti-inflammatory effects. Several types of PTSCs have been identified, with mesenchymal stem cells being the most utilized population. This review will focus on PTSCs and their pre-clinical and clinical applications in neonatology.

Keywords: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; Cell therapy; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Necrotizing enterocolitis; Placenta; Regenerative medicine; Stem cells; Tissue bioengineering.

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