Research: Postoperative pulmonary vascular growth in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Pediatr Surg Int

. 2024 May 7;40(1):125.

 doi: 10.1007/s00383-024-05706-z.

Postoperative pulmonary vascular growth in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Jun Fujishiro 1Rina Matsuda 2Takuji Tomari 2Akinori Ichinose 2Kaori Morita 2Shinya Takazawa 2Mariko Yoshida 2

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Background: Postoperative pulmonary growth in congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) remains unclear. We investigated postoperative pulmonary vascular growth using serial lung perfusion scintigraphy in patients with CDH.

Methods: Neonates with left CDH who underwent surgery and postoperative lung perfusion scintigraphy at our institution between 2001 and 2020 were included. Patient demographics, clinical courses, and lung scintigraphy data were retrospectively analyzed by reviewing medical records.

Results: Twenty-one patients with CDH were included. Of these, 10 underwent serial lung scintigraphy. The ipsilateral perfusion rate and median age on the 1st and serial lung scintigraphy were 32% (34 days) and 33% (3.6 years), respectively. Gestational age at prenatal diagnosis (p = 0.02), alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) at birth (p = 0.007), and preoperative nitric oxide (NO) use (p = 0.014) significantly correlated with the 1st lung scintigraphy. No other variables, including operative approach, were significantly correlated with the 1st or serial scintigraphy findings. All patients improved lung perfusion with serial studies [Difference: + 7.0 (4.3-13.25) %, p = 0.001, paired t-test]. This improvement was not significantly correlated with preoperative A-aDO2 (p = 0.96), NO use (p = 0.28), or liver up (p = 0.90). The difference was significantly larger in patients who underwent thoracoscopic repair than in those who underwent open abdominal repair [+ 10.6 (5.0-17.1) % vs. + 4.25 (1.2-7.9) %, p = 0.042].

Conclusion: Our study indicated a postoperative improvement in ipsilateral lung vascular growth, which is possibly enhanced by a minimally invasive approach, in patients with CDH.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Lung vascular growth; Thoracoscopic approach.

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