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Research: Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest with Tension Gastrothorax Due to Acquired Diaphragmatic Hernia

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Research: Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest with Tension Gastrothorax Due to Acquired Diaphragmatic Hernia

Am J Emerg Med

. 2022 Oct;60:229.e1-229.e3.

 doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.07.054. Epub 2022 Jul 31. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35961833/

Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest with Tension Gastrothorax Due to Acquired Diaphragmatic Hernia

Masaya Miyahara 1Natsuki Kondo 1Takuya Sugiyama 2Yosuke Matsumura 3

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Tension gastrothorax is a rare cause of obstructive shock induced by a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect. We report the process of diagnosis and emergency treatment for tension gastrothorax during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A 71-year-old woman with multiple surgical histories had nausea and vomiting for two days. She was transferred to our hospital with circulatory failure and loss of consciousness. She presented pulseless electric activity and received CPR immediately after arrival. The right atrium and right ventricle were collapsed in the echocardiography. A chest X-ray demonstrated a dilated intestine extending from the peritoneal cavity to the mediastinum. The nasogastric tube (NGT) drained 1000 mL of stomach content and alleviated the abdominal distension, and spontaneous circulation returned immediately after the drainage. Thoracoabdominal CT showed the stomach and the transverse colon had escaped from the peritoneal cavity to the mediastinum. We diagnosed the situation as tension gastrothorax due to an acquired diaphragmatic hernia. History of multiple surgery and multiple operative scars was the first step of the diagnostic process, and the chest X-ray during CPR was the key to the diagnosis. Tension gastrothorax can be misdiagnosed as other conditions. A chest X-ray should be preceded in non-trauma settings, unlike the setting of a tension pneumothorax in trauma patients. Gastrointestinal decompression with NGT placement could be attempted quickly to improve the hemodynamic condition.

Keywords: Cardiac arrest; Diaphragmatic hernia; Obstructive shock; Tension gastrothorax.

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