Research: Risk Stratification by Percent Liver Herniation in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

J Surg Res

. 2022 Oct 25;282:168-173.

 doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2022.09.002. Online ahead of print.

Risk Stratification by Percent Liver Herniation in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Oluyinka O Olutoye 2nd 1Steven C Mehl 1Anoosha Moturu 1Rowland W Pettit 1Ryan D Coleman 2Adam M Vogel 3Timothy C Lee 3Sundeep G Keswani 3Alice King 4

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Introduction: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and significant neonatal morbidity. Although intrathoracic liver herniation (LH) >20% is associated with adverse outcomes, the relationship between LH <20% and outcomes is poorly characterized.

Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2020 of 80 fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia that were delivered and repaired at our institution. Perinatal, perioperative, and postoperative data were collected. We evaluated the association of %LH with outcomes as a stratified ordinal variable (0%-10% LH, 10%-19% LH, and >20% LH) and as a continuous variable. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc analysis, chi-square analyses, and univariate logistic regression.

Results: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P < 0.001), repair on ECMO (P = 0.002), repair with patch (P < 0.001), length of stay (P = 0.002), inhaled nitric oxide use (P < 0.001), and sildenafil use at discharge (P < 0.001), showed significant differences among LH groups. There were no differences among the groups concerning survival (at discharge, 6 mo, and 1 y) and tracheostomy. On further analysis there was no difference between 10% and 19% LH and ≥20% LH patients concerning ECMO (P = 0.55), repair on ECMO (P = 0.54), repair with patch (P = 1.00), length of stay (P = 1.00), and inhaled nitric oxide use (P = 0.33). Logistic regression analysis displayed a significant association with LH and ECMO, repair on ECMO, repair with patch, inhaled nitric oxide use, and sildenafil use.

Conclusions: Our analysis displays no significant difference in perinatal management between patients with 10%-19% and ≥20% LH. These findings suggest that the historical cutoff of ≥20% LH may not be sufficient alone to guide perinatal counseling and decision-making.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Liver herniation; Prenatal predictors; Pulmonary hypertension.

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