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Research: Role of Imaging in Obstetric Interventions: Criteria, Considerations, and Complications

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Research: Role of Imaging in Obstetric Interventions: Criteria, Considerations, and Complications

Radiographics

. 2021 Jun 11;200163. doi: 10.1148/rg.2021200163. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115536/

Role of Imaging in Obstetric Interventions: Criteria, Considerations, and Complications

Priyanka Jha 1Vickie A Feldstein 1Margarita V Revzin 1Douglas S Katz 1Mariam Moshiri 1Affiliations expand

Abstract

US has an established role in the prenatal detection of congenital and developmental disorders. Many pregnant women undergo US at 18-20 weeks of gestation for assessment of fetal anatomy and detection of structural anomalies. With advances in fetoscopy and minimally invasive procedures, in utero fetal interventions can be offered to address some of the detected structural and physiologic fetal abnormalities. Most interventions are reserved for conditions that, if left untreated, often cause in utero death or a substantially compromised neonatal outcome. US is crucial for preprocedural evaluation and planning, real-time procedural guidance, and monitoring and assessment of postprocedural complications. Percutaneous needle-based interventions include in utero transfusion, thoracentesis and placement of a thoracoamniotic shunt, vesicocentesis and placement of a vesicoamniotic shunt, and aortic valvuloplasty. Fetoscopic interventions include myelomeningocele repair and tracheal balloon occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In rare cases, open hysterotomy may be required for repair of a myelomeningocele or resection of a sacrococcygeal teratoma. Monochorionic twin pregnancies involve specific complications such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome, which is treated with fetoscopic laser ablation of vascular connections, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence, which is treated with radiofrequency ablation. Finally, when extended placental support is necessary at delivery for repair of congenital high airway obstruction or resection of lung masses, ex utero intrapartum treatment can be planned. Radiologists should be aware of the congenital anomalies that are amenable to in utero interventions and, when necessary, consider referral to centers where such treatments are offered. Online supplemental material and the slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting are available for this article. ©RSNA, 2021.

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