Research: School age educational outcomes of infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Birth Defects Res

. 2022 Oct 19.

 doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2104. Online ahead of print.

School age educational outcomes of infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Alyssa R Walden 1Wendy N Nembhard 1 2 3Chary Akmyradov 4Anthony Goudie 5Nahed O ElHassan 1 3

Affiliations expand


Background: To compare academic proficiency among children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) versus controls and identify predictors of academic performance among children with CDH.

Methods: Infants born with CDH in Arkansas, 2000-2005, were identified from the Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System. For each case, two controls were selected from birth certificate data and matched for hospital and month of birth, sex, and race/ethnicity. Data on re-hospitalization within the first 5 years and payer data were collected from the Arkansas Hospital Inpatient Discharge database. Surviving cases and controls were linked to the Arkansas Department of Education database. Primary outcomes were odds of proficiency on fourth grade literacy and mathematics achievement tests. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the association between study characteristics and academic proficiency.

Results: The final study cohort included 25 surviving CDH cases and 31 controls who were linked to their education data. After adjusting for differences in characteristics (5-min Apgar score and associated congenital anomalies) between cases and controls, there were no statistically significant differences in literacy (72% vs. 84%, p = .93) or mathematics (64% vs. 81%, p = .98) test proficiency between the two groups. In multivariable analyses, among CDH cases, oxygen at discharge and Medicaid payer/longer hospital stay were associated with worse fourth grade literacy and mathematics proficiency, respectively.

Conclusions: Oxygen at discharge, Medicaid payer, and longer hospital stay were associated with lower academic performance among CDH cases.

Keywords: CDH; educational outcomes; neurodevelopmental outcomes; school age outcomes.

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