Research: Short term effect of intravenous treprostinil in term and preterm infants with pulmonary hypertension

BMC Pediatr

. 2024 Jan 29;24(1):83.

 doi: 10.1186/s12887-023-04501-4.

Short term effect of intravenous treprostinil in term and preterm infants with pulmonary hypertension

Yoo-Jin Kim 1Seung Han Shin 2 3Ee-Kyung Kim 4 5Han-Suk Kim 4 5

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Free PMC article


Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening condition in newborns. We aimed to assess the clinical and echocardiographic responses of term and preterm infants to treprostinil.

Methods: This retrospective study included newborns diagnosed with PH and treated with treprostinil as additional therapy after inhaled nitric oxide administration in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary center. Term and preterm infants were compared in terms of echocardiographic findings and clinical findings 4 weeks after treprostinil treatment.

Results: During the study period, 11 term and 18 preterm infants were diagnosed with PH and received treprostinil. There were no differences in the echocardiographic findings of interventricular septal deviation, direction of shunt, and ratio of estimated pulmonary artery pressure over systolic blood pressure. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was the most common condition occurring upon PH diagnosis among term infants, while severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was the most common in preterm infants. Improvements in echocardiographic findings were more pronounced in term infants than in preterm infants (100% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.012). The inhaled nitric oxide dose was gradually tapered for term infants and was lower than that for preterm infants at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treprostinil.

Conclusion: Intravenous treprostinil could be an adjuvant therapy option for term and preterm infants with PH, especially for those who cannot receive oral medication. The efficacy and safety of treprostinil in this population with PH should be investigated further.

Keywords: Preterm infant; Prostacyclin analogue; Pulmonary hypertension; Pulmonary vasodilator agent; Term infant.

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