Research: Surfactant Therapy in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Fetoscopic Endoscopic Tracheal Occlusion

J Surg Res

. 2024 Jan 30:296:239-248.

 doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.12.003. Online ahead of print.

Surfactant Therapy in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Fetoscopic Endoscopic Tracheal Occlusion

Y Deniz Sevilmis 1Oluyinka O Olutoye 2nd 1Sarah Peiffer 1Steven C Mehl 1Michael A Belfort 2Christopher J Rhee 3Joseph A Garcia-Prats 3Adam M Vogel 4Timothy C Lee 5Sundeep G Keswani 5Alice King 6

Affiliations expand


Introduction: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a complex pathology with severe pulmonary morbidity. Administration of surfactant in CDH is controversial, and the advent of fetoscopic endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) has added further complexity. While FETO has been shown to improve survival outcomes, there are risks of prematurity and potential surfactant deficiency. We aim to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of surfactant administration for CDH infants and elucidate potential benefits or risks in this unique population.

Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort review of patients with unilateral CDH from September 2015 to July 2022 was performed. Demographics, prognostic perinatal imaging features, and outcomes were collected. Patients were stratified by surfactant administration and history of FETO. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, two-sample t-tests, chi-squared analyses, and logistic regression.

Results: Of 105 included patients, 19 (18%) underwent FETO and 25 (24%) received surfactant. Overall, surfactant recipients were born at earlier gestational ages and lower birthweights regardless of FETO history. Surfactant recipients possessed significantly worse prenatal prognostic features such as observed to expected total fetal lung volume, observed to expected lung to head ratio, and percent liver herniation. In CDH patients without FETO history, surfactant recipients demonstrated worse outcomes than nonrecipients. This association is notably absent in the FETO population, where surfactant recipients have more favorable survival and comparable outcomes. When controlling for defect severity or surfactant usage, as a proxy for respiratory status, surfactant recipients that underwent FETO trended toward improved survival and decreased ECMO use.

Conclusions: Surfactant administration is not associated with increased morbidity and mortality and may be beneficial in CDH patients that have undergone FETO.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); FETO; Fetal intervention; Fetal surgery; Fetoscopic endoscopic tracheal occlusion; Surfactant.

Recommended Articles

Translate »