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Research: Survival and Developmental Outcomes of Neonates Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience

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Research: Survival and Developmental Outcomes of Neonates Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience

J Pediatr

. 2021 Feb;229:134-140.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.011. Epub 2020 Oct 13 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33058857/.

Survival and Developmental Outcomes of Neonates Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience

Faith Kim 1Judy Bernbaum 2James Connelly 2Marsha Gerdes 2Holly L Hedrick 2Casey Hoffman 2Natalie E Rintoul 2Kristina Ziolkowski 2Sara B DeMauro 3Affiliations expand

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the associations between the primary indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 12 and 24 months of age.

Study design: This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates treated with ECMO between January 2006 and January 2016 in the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia newborn/infant intensive care unit. Primary indication for ECMO was classified as medical (eg, meconium aspiration syndrome) or surgical (eg, congenital diaphragmatic hernia). Primary study endpoints were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Groups were compared with standard bivariate testing and multivariable regression.

Results: A total of 191 neonates met the study’s inclusion criteria, including 96 with a medical indication and 95 with a surgical indication. Survival to discharge was 71%, with significantly higher survival in the medical group (82% vs 60%; P = .001). Survivors had high rates of developmental therapies and neurosensory abnormalities. Developmental outcomes were available for 66% at 12 months and 70% at 24 months. Average performance on the Bayley-III was significantly below expected population normative values. Surgical patients had modestly lower the Bayley-III scores over time; most notably, 15% of medical infants and 49% of surgical infants had motor delay at 24 months (P = .03).

Conclusions: In this single-center cohort, surgical patients had lower survival rates and higher incidence of motor delays. Strategies to reduce barriers to follow-up and improve rates of postdischarge developmental surveillance and intervention in this high-risk population are needed.

Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; neonate.

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