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Research: The association of inborn status and resource utilization among neonates who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

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Research: The association of inborn status and resource utilization among neonates who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

J Pediatr Surg

. 2021 Feb 18;S0022-3468(21)00154-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.02.020. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33743989/

The association of inborn status and resource utilization among neonates who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Kathryn L Fletcher 1Vilma Contreras 2Ashley Song 2Ashwini Lakshmanan 3Leah Yieh 4Cynthia L Gong 4Lorraine I Kelley-Quon 5Philippe S Friedlich 6Rachel L Chapman 6Affiliations expand

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Abstract

Background: Many studies have established that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be a cost-effective treatment in some populations, but limited data exist on which factors are associated with length of stay (LOS) and total hospital costs. This study aimed to determine if inborn (i.e., cared for in their birth hospitals) neonates who receive ECMO have different resource utilization and outcomes compared to outborn (i.e., not cared for in their birth hospitals) neonates who receive ECMO.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997-2012. Neonates (infants, <28 days) placed on ECMO were categorized as either inborn or outborn. Salient clinical characteristics were compared between groups. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with length of stay (LOS), total hospital costs, and mortality in these two patient populations.

Results: Of 5,152 neonates receiving ECMO, 800 were inborn and 4,352 were outborn. Inborn neonates were more frequently diagnosed with cardiac-related diagnoses (70.5% vs 62.1%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for demographics and hospital-level factors, inborn neonates had longer hospital LOS (13.2 days, 95% CI, 8.7-18.7; p < 0.001), higher total encounter costs ($62,000, 95% CI, 40,000-85,000; p < 0.001) and higher mortality (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-2.9; p < 0.001) compared to outborn neonates.

Conclusions: Inborn neonates placed on ECMO were more frequently diagnosed with cardiac-related diseases or congenital diaphragmatic hernia, had longer LOS, higher total encounter costs, and higher mortality rates relative to their outborn counterparts, and likely represent a higher risk population. These two populations of infants may be inherently different and their differences should be further explored to inform decision making about optimal site of delivery.

Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Hospital Costs; Infant, newborn; Length of stay.

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