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Research: Variation in Complications and Mortality According to Infant Diagnosis

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Research: Variation in Complications and Mortality According to Infant Diagnosis

Ann Surg

. 2022 Aug 9.

 doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005658. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35943204/

Variation in Complications and Mortality According to Infant Diagnosis

Steven C Mehl 1 2Jorge I Portuondo 1Sara C Fallon 1Sohail R Shah 1 2David E Wesson 1 2Adam M Vogel 1 2Alice King 1 2Monica E Lopez 3Nader N Massarweh 4 5 6

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Objective: Investigate patterns of infant perioperative mortality, describe the infant diagnoses with the highest mortality burden, and evaluate the association between types of postoperative complications and mortality in infants.

Background data: The majority of mortality events in pediatric surgery occur among infants (i.e. children <1 y old). However, there is limited data characterizing patterns of infant perioperative mortality and diagnoses that account for the highest proportion of mortality.

Methods: Infants who received inpatient surgery were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database (2012-2019). Perioperative mortality was stratified into mortality associated with a complication or mortality without a complication. Complications were categorized as wound infection, systemic infection, pulmonary, central nervous system (CNS), renal, or cardiovascular. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between different complications and complicated mortality.

Results: Among 111,946 infants, the rate of complications and perioperative mortality was 10.4% and 1.6%, respectively. Mortality associated with a complication accounted for 38.8% of all perioperative mortality. Seven diagnoses accounted for the highest proportion of mortality events (40.3%): necrotizing enterocolitis (22.3%); congenital diaphragmatic hernia (7.3%); meconium peritonitis (3.8%); premature intestinal perforation (2.5%); tracheoesophageal fistula (1.8%); gastroschisis (1.4%); and volvulus (1.1%). Relative to wound complications, cardiovascular (Odds Ratio [OR] 19.4, 95% CI [13.9-27.0]), renal (OR 6.88 [4.65-10.2]), and CNS complications (OR 6.50 [4.50-9.40]) had the highest odds of mortality for all infants.

Conclusions: A small subset of diagnoses account for 40% of all infant mortality and specific types of complications are associated with mortality. These data suggest targeted quality improvement initiatives could be implemented to reduce adverse surgical outcomes in infants.

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