Research: Ventricular function in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Eur J Pediatr

. 2021 Nov 1. doi: 10.1007/s00431-021-04303-9. Online ahead of print.

Ventricular function in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Rameshwar Prasad 1Bijan Saha 2Amit Kumar 3Affiliations expand


There is emerging evidence supporting ventricular function as a prognostic factor in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the predictive value of early ventricular function for survival and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requirement in newborns with CDH. PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register, Clinical Trial Registry, and Opengrey were accessed. Studies evaluating associations between echocardiographic ventricular function measured ≤ 48 h after birth and survival or ECMO requirement were included. Two independent authors extracted the following data: study and participant characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcome-related data. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported on survival, two on ECMO, and four on both outcomes. A moderate risk of bias was found in most of the studies, mainly because of selection, prognostic factors, and confounding biases. For survival (899 participants), pooled sensitivity and specificity were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77-92%) and 44% (95% CI, 25-65%), respectively, in normal left ventricular function. For ECMO need (815 participants), pooled sensitivity and specificity were 39.8% (95% CI, 27-52%) and 88% (95% CI, 80-96%), respectively, in left ventricular dysfunction. Overall certainty of the evidence was graded very low for survival and low for ECMO. Inconsistent reporting of echocardiographic measurements and lack of adjustment for confounding factors were major limitations.Conclusion: Early ventricular dysfunction is a potential prognostic factor in CDH. Standardized echocardiographic measurement reporting and high-quality studies are needed to further elucidate its prognostic significance. What is Known: • Evidence supports the predictive value of echocardiographic measurements in CDH ≤ 24-48 h post-birth. • Ventricular dysfunction has been proposed as a prognostic risk factor. What is New: • Right and left ventricular functions were promising predictors of survival and ECMO requirement in neonates with CDH. • Test characteristics of ventricular function were determined as predictors of survival or need for ECMO. Specific echocardiographic markers of ventricular function can be valuable in determining prognosis.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Echocardiography; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Survival; Ventricular function.

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