Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: current management strategies from antenatal diagnosis to long-term follow-up.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental birth defect consisting of a diaphragmatic defect and abnormal lung development. CDH complicates 2.3-2.8 per 10,000 live births. Despite efforts to standardize clinical practice, management of CDH remains challenging. Frequent re-evaluation of clinical practices in CDH reveals that management of CDH is evolving from one of postnatal stabilization to prenatal optimization. Translational research reveals promising avenues for in utero therapeutic intervention, including fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion. These remain highly experimental and demand improved antenatal diagnostics. Timely diagnosis of CDH and identification of severely affected fetuses allow time for delivery planning or in utero therapeutics. Optimal perinatal care and surgical treatment strategies are highly debated. Improved CDH mortality rates have placed increased emphasis on identifying and monitoring the long-term sequelae of disease throughout childhood and into adulthood. We review the current management strategies for CDH, highlighting where progress has been made, and where future developments have the potential to revolutionize care in this vulnerable patient population.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion; Prenatal therapyPMID: 32072236 DOI: 10.1007/s00383-020-04625-z