Research: Epidemiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia among 24 million Chinese births: a hospital-based surveillance study

World J Pediatr

. 2023 Dec 9.

 doi: 10.1007/s12519-023-00774-y. Online ahead of print.

Epidemiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia among 24 million Chinese births: a hospital-based surveillance study

Zhi-Yu Chen 1Jing Tao 1Wen-Li Xu 1Yu-Yang Gao 1Wen-Yan Li 1Zhen Liu 1Jia-Yuan Zhou 1Li Dai 2 3 4 5 6

Affiliations expand


Background: The prevalence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) varies across countries, with limited information available on its epidemiology in China. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence, time trends, and perinatal outcomes of CDH in China, as well as its associated malformations and potential associations with maternal and infant characteristics.

Methods: This study included all birth and CDH cases from the Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network between 2007 and 2019, with CDH cases classified as either isolated or associated. We employed the joinpoint regression model to calculate the trends of prevalence and the annual percent change, with Poisson regression used for adjusted prevalence rate ratios. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 4397 CDH cases were identified among 24,158,029 births in the study period, yielding prevalence rates of 1.82, 1.13 and 0.69 per 10,000 for overall, isolated, and associated CDH, respectively. The prevalence of each type of CDH increased over time. The prevalence of overall CDH varied significantly by infant sex (male vs. female, 1.91/10,000 vs. 1.63/10,000), maternal residence (urban vs. rural, 2.13/10,000 vs. 1.45/10,000), maternal age (< 20 years, 1.31/10,000; 20-24 years, 1.63/10,000; 25-29 years, 1.80/10,000; 30-34 years, 1.87/10,000; ≥ 35 years, 2.22/10,000), and geographic region (central, 1.64/10,000; east, 2.45/10,000; west, 1.37/10,000). Cardiovascular anomalies were the most common malformations associated with CDH. Infants with associated CDH had a higher risk of premature birth and perinatal death than those with isolated CDH.

Conclusion: The increasing prevalence and high perinatal mortality rate of CDH highlight the need for further etiological, epidemiological, and clinical studies among the Chinese population. Video Abstract.

Keywords: China; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Epidemiology; Prevalence.

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