Pediatr Surg Int
. 2023 Apr 13;39(1):180.
doi: 10.1007/s00383-023-05452-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37055635/
Fetal lung hypoxia and energetic cell failure in the nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia rat model
- PMID: 37055635
- DOI: 10.1007/s00383-023-05452-8
Purpose: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) pathogenesis is poorly understood. We hypothesize that fetal CDH lungs are chronically hypoxic because of lung hypoplasia and tissue compression, affecting the cell bioenergetics as a possible explanation for abnormal lung development.
Methods: To investigate this theory, we conducted a study using the rat nitrofen model of CDH. We evaluated the bioenergetics status using H1 Nuclear magnetic resonance and studied the expression of enzymes involved in energy production, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, and the glucose transporter 1.
Results: The nitrofen-exposed lungs have increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and the main fetal glucose transporter, more evident in the CDH lungs. We also found imbalanced AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios, and a depleted energy cellular charge. Subsequent transcription levels and protein expression of the enzymes involved in bioenergetics confirm the attempt to prevent the energy collapse with the increase in lactate dehydrogenase C, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 and 2, adenosine monophosphate deaminase, AMP-activated protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2, and liver kinase B1, while decreasing ATP synthase.
Conclusion: Our study suggests that changes in energy production could play a role in CDH pathogenesis. If confirmed in other animal models and humans, this could lead to the development of novel therapies targeting the mitochondria to improve outcomes.
Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Energetic failure; Hypoxia; Lung hypoplasia; Metabolism; Nitrofen.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.