Research: High frequency jet ventilation for congenital diaphragmatic hernia

J Pediatr Surg

. 2023 Jan 21;S0022-3468(23)00045-3.

 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2023.01.026. Online ahead of print.

High frequency jet ventilation for congenital diaphragmatic hernia

A Al Kharusi 1A Al-Maawali 1M Traynor 2N Adreak 1Joseph Ting 3E D Skarsgard 4

Affiliations expand


Background: The optimal role of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in lung protective stabilization of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains uncertain. We aimed to describe our center’s experience with HFJV as both a rescue (following failed stabilization with CMV) and primary ventilation mode in the management of CDH.

Methods: Liveborn CDH patients treated from 2013 to 2021 in a single institution were reviewed. We compared 3 groups based on their primary and last ventilation mode prior to surgery: CMV (Group 1); HFJV (Group 2); and CMV/HFJV (Group 3). Outcomes included a composite primary outcome (≥1 of mortality, need for ECMO or need for supplemental O2 at discharge), total invasive ventilation days and development of pneumothorax. A descriptive analysis including univariate group comparisons was performed. Multivariate logistic regression models investigating the relationship between mode of ventilation and the primary outcome adjusted by potentially confounding covariates were constructed.

Results: 56 patients (32 Group 1, 18 Group 2, 6 Group 3) were analyzed. Group 2 and 3 patients had more severe disease based on liver position, SNAP-II score, pulmonary hypertension severity, need for inotropic support, CDHSG defect size and need for patch repair. There were no group differences in survival, need for ECMO, or pneumothorax occurrence, although infants receiving HFJV required longer invasive ventilation and had a greater need for O2 at discharge. Multivariate logistic regression revealed no associations between mode of ventilation and outcome.

Conclusions: HFJV appears effective, both for CMV rescue and as a primary ventilation strategy in high risk CDH.

Level of evidence: Level IV.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); High frequency jet ventilation (HFJV); Lung protective ventilation; Outcome.

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