Research: Inborn Versus Outborn Delivery in Neonates With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

J Surg Res

. 2021 Oct 25;270:245-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2021.09.004. Online ahead of print.

Inborn Versus Outborn Delivery in Neonates With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Stephen Stopenski 1Yigit S Guner 2Jennifer Jolley 3Carol Major 3Tamera Hatfield 3Ashley H Ebanks 4Danh V Nguyen 5Tim Jancelewicz 6Matthew T Harting 4Peter T Yu 2CDH Study GroupAffiliations expand


Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a morbid and potentially fatal condition that challenges providers. The aim of this study is to compare outcomes in neonates with prenatally diagnosed CDH that are inborn (delivered in the institution where definitive care for CDH is provided) versus outborn.

Methods: Prenatally diagnosed CDH cases were identified from the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group (CDHSG) database between 2007 and 2019. Using risk adjustment based on disease severity, we compared inborn versus outborn status using baseline risk and multivariable logistic regression models. The primary endpoint was mortality and the secondary endpoint was need for extracorporeal life support (ECLS).

Results: Of 4195 neonates with prenatally diagnosed CDH, 3087 (73.6%) were inborn and 1108 (26.4%) were outborn. There was no significant difference in birth weight, gestational age, or presence of additional congenital anomalies. There was no difference in mortality between inborn and outborn infants (32.6% versus 33.8%, P = 0.44) or ECLS requirement (30.9% versus 31.5%, P = 0.73). Among neonates requiring ECLS, outborn status was a risk factor for mortality (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13-2.01, P = 0.006). After adjusting for post-surgical defect size, which is not known prenatally, outborn status was no longer a risk factor for mortality for infants requiring ECLS.

Conclusions: Risk of mortality and need for ECLS for inborn CDH patients is not different to outborn infants. Future studies should be directed to establishing whether highest risk infants are at risk for worse outcomes based on center of birth.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Extracorporeal life support; Inborn; Outborn.

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