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Research: Incidence of and risk factors for perioperative blood transfusion in infants undergoing index pediatric surgery procedures

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Research: Incidence of and risk factors for perioperative blood transfusion in infants undergoing index pediatric surgery procedures

J Pediatr Surg

. 2022 Feb 12;S0022-3468(22)00127-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.01.055. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35264304/

Incidence of and risk factors for perioperative blood transfusion in infants undergoing index pediatric surgery procedures

Marina L Reppucci 1Maxene Meier 2Jenny Stevens 3Gabrielle Shirek 4Ann M Kulungowski 3Shannon N Acker 3Affiliations expand

Abstract

Background: There is a paucity of data on the frequency of transfusion during pediatric surgery index cases and guidelines for pretransfusion testing, defined as type and screen and crossmatch testing, prior to operation are not standardized. This study aimed to determine the incidence of perioperative blood transfusions during index neonatal operations and identify risk factors associated with perioperative blood transfusion to determine which patients benefit from pretransfusion testing.

Methods: A retrospective review of infants who underwent index neonatal cases between 2013 and 2019 was performed. Data were collected for patients who underwent operations for Hirschsprung’s disease, esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF), biliary atresia, anorectal malformation, omphalocele, gastroschisis, duodenal atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (non-ECMO) or pulmonary lobectomy. Infants under 6 months were included except in the case of lobectomy where infants up to 12 months were included.

Results: Analysis was performed on 420 patients. Twenty-five (6.0%) patients received perioperative blood transfusion. Patients who received perioperative transfusion most commonly underwent EA/TEF repair. Patients who received perioperative transfusion had higher rates of structural heart disease (52.0% vs 17.7%, p<0.001), preoperative transfusion (48.0% vs 8.9%, p<0.001), and prematurity (52.0% vs 25.6%, p = 0.005). Presence of all three risk factors resulted in a 48% probability of requiring perioperative transfusion.

Conclusions: Blood transfusion during the perioperative period of neonatal index operations is rare. Factors associated with increased risk of perioperative transfusion include prematurity, structural heart disease, and history of previous blood transfusion.

Level of evidence: III.

Keywords: Blood transfusion; Index pediatric surgeries; Infants; Neonates.

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