To determine the rate and predictors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Between 06/2004 and 09/2015 a total of 110 CDH survivors underwent neurodevelopmental (ND) testing and screening for ASD, followed by a full autism diagnostic evaluation if indicated at our institution. We found a 9 time higher rate of ASD in CDH children compared to the general population (P = 0.0002). Multiple patient-related and clinical variables risk factors of ASD were identified by univariate analysis. However, only short-term and long-term neurodevelopmental delays were strongly associated with ASD in CDH by multivariate comparisons. There is a striking prevalence of ASD in CDH survivors and our findings suggest that all CDH children should be regularly screened for ASD.
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