Research: Surgical Risk Factors for Delayed Oral Feeding Autonomy in Patients with Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Research

J Clin Med. 2023 Mar 21;12(6):2415. doi: 10.3390/jcm12062415.

Mélina Bourezma 1Sébastien Mur 2 3 4Laurent Storme 2 3 4Emeline Cailliau 4 5Pascal Vaast 3 6Rony Sfeir 1Arthur Lauriot Dit Prevost 1Estelle Aubry 1 3Kévin Le Duc 2 3 4Dyuti Sharma 1 3 4French CDH Reference Center

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Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare disease associated with major nutritional and digestive morbidities. Oral feeding autonomy remains a major issue for the care and management of these patients. The aim of this study was to specify the perinatal risk factors of delayed oral feeding autonomy in patients treated for CDH.

Methods: This monocentric cohort study included 138 patients with CDH. Eighty-four patients were analyzed after the exclusion of 54 patients (11 with delayed postnatal diagnosis, 5 with chromosomal anomaly, 9 with genetic syndrom, 13 with right-sided CDH, and 16 who died before discharge and before oral feeding autonomy was acquired). They were divided into two groups: oral feeding autonomy at initial hospital discharge (group 1, n = 51) and nutritional support at discharge (group 2, n = 33). Antenatal, postnatal, and perisurgical data were analyzed from birth until first hospital discharge. To remove biased or redundant factors related to CDH severity, statistical analysis was adjusted according to the need for a patch repair.

Results: After analysis and adjustment, delayed oral feeding autonomy was not related to observed/expected lung-to-head ratio (LHR o/e), intrathoracic liver and/or stomach position, or operative duration. After adjustment, prophylactic gastrostomy (OR adjusted: 16.3, IC 95%: 3.6-74.4) and surgical reoperation (OR adjusted: 5.1, IC 95% 1.1-23.7) remained significantly associated with delayed oral feeding autonomy.

Conclusions: Delayed oral feeding autonomy occurred in more than one third of patients with CDH. Both prophylactic gastrostomy and surgical reoperation represent significant risk factors. Bowel obstruction might also impact oral feeding autonomy. Prophylactic gastrostomy seems to be a false “good idea” to prevent failure to thrive. This procedure should be indicated case per case. Bowel obstruction and all surgical reoperations represent decisive events that could impact oral feeding autonomy.

Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia; failure to thrive; gastrostomy; oral feeding autonomy; surgical reintervention.

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